Ressources

21st century education

The Economist Intelligence Unit: Fostering exploration and excellence in 21st century schools

https://perspectives.eiu.com/sites/default/files/EIU_Google-Education.pdf

« The key insights from the research are:

  • A range of teaching strategies is needed to effectively deliver the types of learning needed to prepare students for the 21st century workplace.
    • A large majority of educators surveyed (79%) believe that soft skills need to be developed alongside foundational literacies. Educators most frequently cite the following teaching strategies as “very important” in developing the skills needed in the 21st century workplace: active learning (51%), project-based learning (45%), cognitive activation (42%) and personalised learning (40%). Educators also consider these four strategies as proven to be the most effective in developing needed skills.
  • Technology can support the effective execution of teaching strategies by promoting interaction, engagement and communication.
    • Four in five (82%) educators agree that technology is a valuable tool for developing skills for the modern workplace. Technology is seen as most effective in enhancing the top teaching strategies for developing 21st century skills, as it can be used to promote interaction, engagement and collaboration.
  • Teacher quality is key. Teacher autonomy also matters and is a significant factor in shaping schools’ preparedness to teach 21st century skills.
    • Good teachers need a supportive framework to make the most of their talents, including adequate resources, training and a well-planned curriculum. There is a strong correlation between the degree of autonomy teachers enjoy and schools’ readiness to teach 21st century skills. Educators who assessed their schools as having “much better” teacher autonomy than other schools in their country far more often report being “very well equipped” to teach both foundational literacies and soft skills, such as communication (48% v 25% for the rest of the sample).
  • Budget limitations are the most frequently cited obstacle in adopting new strategies and technologies.
    • Educators most frequently cite budget limitations as by far the most significant barrier to adopting both new teaching strategies (51%) and technologies (53%). A lack of technology access in schools and policy gaps are also notable challenges. On a regional level, budget constraints remain a top challenge for innovation, with North American educators most often reporting these as an obstacle to adopting new strategies (59%) and technologies (61%).
  • Educators most often favour a cautious approach to adopting new teaching strategies and technologies.
    • Opinions vary over how quickly schools should innovate within the classroom. However, educators most often advocate a cautious approach for implementing new teaching strategies (39%) and technologies (40%), allowing for each to be investigated and tested before adoption. (p.2-3)

« What are the social benefits of education?

  • On average across 15 OECD countries, a 30-year-old male tertiary graduate can expect to live another 51 years, while a 30 year-old man who has not completed upper secondary education can expect to live an additional 43 years. A similar comparison between women in the two educational groups reveals less of a difference than that among men.
  • In 27 OECD countries, on average, 80% of young tertiary graduates say they vote, while only 54% of young adults who have not completed upper secondary education do so. The difference in voting rates by level of education is much smaller among older age groups.
  • Education can bring significant benefits to society, not only through higher employment opportunities and income but also via enhanced skills, improved social status and access to networks. By fully recognising the power of education, policy makers could better address diverse societal challenges.

« Quelles sont les retombées sociales de l’éducation ?

  • Selon la moyenne calculée sur la base de 15 pays de l’OCDE, un homme de 30 ans peut espérer vivre 51 ans de plus s’il est diplômé de l’enseignement tertiaire, mais seulement 43 ans de plus s’il n’est pas diplômé du deuxième cycle du secondaire. Chez les femmes, la différence d’espérance de vie en fonction de ces deux niveaux de formation est moins marquée.
  • Selon la moyenne calculée sur la base de 27 pays de l’OCDE, 80 % des jeunes diplômés de l’enseignement tertiaire déclarent voter, contre seulement 54 % des jeunes non diplômés du deuxième cycle du secondaire. La différence de taux de participation électorale en fonction du niveau de formation est bien moins importante dans les groupes d’âges supérieurs.
  • L’éducation peut apporter d’importants bienfaits à la société, non seulement en améliorant les perspectives d’emploi et les revenus, mais également en renforçant les compétences et en améliorant le statut social et l’accès aux réseaux. S’ils prenaient la pleine mesure de l’impact de l’éducation, les décideurs seraient mieux à même de faire face à tout un ensemble d’enjeux sociaux.

The State of the World’s Children 2017 – Children in a Digital World

https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/SOWC_2017_ENG_WEB.pdf

Key messages (p.1):

  • “Digital technology has already changed the world – and as more and more children go online around the world, it is increasingly changing childhood.
    • “Youth (ages 15–24) is the most connected age group. Worldwide, 71 per cent are online compared with 48 per cent of the total population.
    • “Children and adolescents under 18 account for an estimated one in three internet users around the world.
    • “A growing body of evidence indicates that children are accessing the internet at increasingly younger ages. In some countries, children under 15 are as likely to use the internet as adults over 25.
    • “Smartphones are fuelling a ‘bedroom culture’, with online access for many children becoming more personal, more private and less supervised. (p.3)
  • “Chapter Two examines the data on who is being left behind and what it means to be unconnected in a digital world. The top-line numbers are striking: Nearly one third of all youth worldwide – around 346 million 15–24 year olds – are not online. In Africa, 3 out of 5 youth (aged 15 to 24) are offline; in Europe, the proportion is just 1 in 25. But digital divides go deeper than just connectivity. In a world where 56 per cent of websites are in English, many children cannot find content they understand or that’s relevant to their lives. Many also lack the skills, as well as the access to devices like laptops, that would allow them to make the most of online opportunities. If these digital divides are not bridged, they will deepen existing socio-economic divisions. (p.10)
  • “In a world where digital access and digital skills increasingly influence children’s futures, the contours of global connectivity are troubling. Just over 29 per cent of the world’s youth (15–24 years old) – or 346 million – do not use the internet.1 Nearly 9 out of 10 of the young people currently not using the internet live in Africa, Asia or the Pacific. Africa has the highest share of non-users.
  • « Disparities in access are particularly striking in low-income countries: Fewer than 5 per cent of children under 15 use the internet in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe. (p.43)
  • “Nearly 9 out of 10 of the young people (aged 15–24) currently not using the internet live in Africa or Asia and the Pacific. In 2017, Africa was also the region with the highest proportion of non-users among 15- to 24-year-olds – the population segment often considered to be highly connected (see Figures 2.1 and 2.2).
  • “As the World Bank’s World Development Report 2016: Digital dividends points out, “More households in developing countries own a mobile phone than have access to electricity or clean water, and nearly 70 per cent of the bottom fifth of the population in developing countries own a mobile phone. (p.45)
  • “La technologie numérique a changé le monde et alors que le nombre d’enfants utilisant Internet ne cesse d’augmenter, elle transforme de plus en plus l’enfance.
    • Les jeunes (de 15 à 24 ans) constituent la tranche d’âge la plus connectée. À l’échelle mondiale, 71 % d’entre eux utilisent Internet contre 48 % pour la population totale.
    • D’après les estimations, un internaute sur trois dans le monde est un enfant ou un adolescent de moins de 18 ans.
    • Un corpus croissant de données probantes indique que les enfants accèdent à Internet de plus en plus tôt. Dans certains pays, les moins de 15 ans sont aussi susceptibles d’utiliser Internet que les adultes de plus de 25 ans.
    • Les smartphones favorisent une « culture de la chambre », dans laquelle l’accès à Internet de nombreux enfants devient plus personnel et privé, et moins supervisé.
  • “Le chapitre 2 s’intéresse aux données concernant les laissés-pour-compte du numérique et examine les répercussions liées au fait de ne pas être connecté dans un monde numérique. Les premiers chiffres sont édifiants : près d’un tiers des jeunes dans le monde, soit environ 346 millions de jeunes âgés de 15 à 24 ans, ne sont pas en ligne. En Afrique, trois jeunes sur cinq âgés de 15 à 24 ans ne sont pas connectés, contre seulement un sur 25 en Europe. Mais la fracture numérique va au-delà de la simple connectivité. Dans un monde où 56 % des sites Internet sont en anglais, beaucoup d’enfants ne peuvent pas accéder à des contenus qu’ils comprennent ou qui sont en rapport avec leur vie. De plus, nombre d’entre eux ne disposent ni des compétences ni des équipements nécessaires, comme les ordinateurs portables, pour tirer le meilleur parti des possibilités offertes en ligne. Si ces fractures numériques ne sont pas réduites, elles aggraveront les disparités socioéconomiques existantes.
  • “Dans un monde où l’accès au numérique et les compétences en la matière influencent de plus en plus l’avenir des enfants, le panorama de la connectivité mondiale devient plus problématique. Un peu plus de 29 % des jeunes du monde (de 15 à 24 ans), soit 346 millions de personnes, n’utilisent pas Internet1. Près de neuf jeunes sur dix qui n’utilisent actuellement pas Internet vivent en Afrique, en Asie ou dans la région Pacifique. C’est l’Afrique qui regroupe la part la plus importante de non-utilisateurs.
  • “Les disparités dans l’accès sont particulièrement frappantes dans les pays à revenu faible : moins de 5 % des enfants de moins de 15 ans utilisent Internet au Bangladesh et au Zimbabwe.
  • “Près de neuf jeunes sur dix (âgés de 15 à 24 ans) qui n’utilisent actuellement pas Internet vivent en Afrique, en Asie et dans la région Pacifique. En 2017, l’Afrique est également la région qui affiche la plus grande part de non- utilisateurs parmi les jeunes de 15 à 24 ans, un segment de population souvent considéré comme très connecté (voir Figures 2.1 et 2.2)
  • Comme le souligne la Banque mondiale dans son Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 2016 : les dividendes du numérique, « [d]ans les pays en développement, les ménages qui possèdent un téléphone mobile sont plus nombreux que ceux qui ont accès à l’électricité ou à de l’eau salubre, et près de 70 % des personnes appartenant au quintile inférieur de la population sont propriétaires d’un [téléphone] portable ».

Global Education Monitoring Report Summary 2017/8: Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002595/259593e.pdf

  • “Globally, less than one in five countries guarantees 12 years of both free and compulsory education. Such guarantees are most common in Latin America and the Caribbean (47% of countries) and in Caucasus and Central Asia (38% of countries), while no low income country makes that provision. (p.35)
  • “Location and wealth are two key dimensions that merit close monitoring. In 2010–2015, for every 75 adolescents in rural areas who completed lower secondary school, 100 urban adolescents did so. The parity index is worse for the poor. Globally, 61 in the poorest fifth of the population completed lower secondary school for every 100 of those in the richest. The corresponding figures are 54 for every 100 in lower middle income countries and 14 for every 100 in low income countries. While the global completion rate was 69%, only 12% of the poorest males and 8% of the poorest females completed lower secondary school.
  • Moreover, household surveys do not capture many vulnerable populations, including seasonal workers, homeless people, refugees and populations in conflict zones. It is estimated that around 250 million people worldwide are excluded as a result of survey design, and a further 100 million are under-represented, including slum dwellers. (p.41)
  • “Between 2000 and 2015, the adult literacy rate increased from 81.5% to 86%, although it remains at 64% in sub- Saharan Africa and just below 60% in low income countries. The number of adults with no literacy skills has fallen by just 4% to 753 million.
  • “By contrast, the number of youth with no literacy skills has fallen by 27%. Still, there are more than 100 million young people who cannot read, including more than one in four in sub-Saharan Africa and in low income countries. (p.42)
  • “À l’échelle mondiale, moins d’un pays sur cinq assure douze années d’éducation à la fois gratuite et obligatoire. Ces garanties sont particulièrement courantes en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes (47 % des pays)
  • “La zone géographique et le niveau de richesse sont deux éléments fondamentaux qui doivent faire l’objet d’un suivi rapproché. Entre 2010 et 2015, pour 100 adolescents de milieu urbain ayant achevé le premier cycle du secondaire, ils étaient 75 en milieu rural. Les disparités sont encore plus marquées entre les pauvres et les riches : à l’échelle mondiale, 61 élèves du quintile le plus pauvre avaient atteint la dernière année du premier cycle de l’enseignement secondaire, pour 100 dans le quintile le plus riche. Cette proportion s’élève à 54 pour 100 dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire et à 14 pour 100 dans les pays à faible revenu. Si le taux mondial d’achèvement était de 69 %, seuls 12 % des garçons les plus pauvres et 8 % des filles les plus pauvres avaient achevé le premier cycle du secondaire.
  • “En outre, les enquêtes auprès des ménages ne tiennent pas compte des nombreuses populations vulnérables : travailleurs saisonniers, sans-abri, réfugiés et populations dans les zones de conflit. Dans le monde, on estime à 250 millions le nombre de personnes non prises en compte en raison de la conception des enquêtes, et à 100 millions le nombre de celles qui sont sous-représentées, notamment les habitants de taudis.
  • “Entre 2000 et 2015, le taux d’alphabétisme des adultes est passé de 81,5 % à 86 %. Il est cependant resté stable à 64 % en Afrique subsaharienne et légèrement inférieur à 60 % dans les pays à faible revenu. Le nombre d’adultes non alphabétisés a baissé de 4 % seulement pour atteindre 753 millions.
  • “Si le nombre de jeunes non alphabétisés a chuté de 27 %, on compte en revanche plus de 100 millions de jeunes ne sachant pas lire, dont plus d’un sur quatre en Afrique subsaharienne et dans les pays à faible revenu.

UNESCO Policy Paper 27 / Fact Sheet 37

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002452/245238E.pdf

  • “About 263 million children and youth are out of school, according to UIS data. This number includes 61 million children of primary school age (about 6 to 11 years), 60 million young adolescents of lower secondary school age (about 12 to 14 years), and 142 million youth of upper secondary school age (about 15 to 17 years) for the school year ending in 2014. (p.2)
  • “Girls are more likely than boys to remain completely excluded from education, despite the efforts and progress made over the past two decades. According to UIS data, 15 million girls of primary school age will never have the opportunity to learn to read and write in primary school, compared to about 10 million boys. (p.5)
  • “In order to benefit from secondary level curricula, students must possess the necessary skills from previous education stages. Due to the poor quality of previous schooling or education interruptions, many disadvantaged students enter secondary education with learning deficits that hinder learning, reduce motivation and push them to drop out. More personalized support or counselling can help such students catch up with their more privileged peers and fully participate in secondary schooling. (p.15)
  • “The numbers are staggering – 263 million children, adolescents and youth are excluded from education. More than half of all excluded children and youth are between the ages of 15 and 17. (p.16)
  • “Selon les données de l’ISU, environ 263 millions d’enfants et de jeunes ne sont pas scolarisés. Ce nombre comprend 61 millions d’enfants en âge de fréquenter le primaire (âgés de 6 à 11 ans environ), 60 millions de jeunes adolescents en âge de fréquenter le premier cycle du secondaire (âgés de 12 à 14 ans environ) et 142 millions de jeunes en âge de fréquenter le second cycle du secondaire (âgés de 15 à 17 ans) pour l’année scolaire se terminant en 2014.
  • “Les filles sont plus susceptibles que les garçons de rester complètement exclues de l’éducation malgré les efforts et les progrès réalisés ces deux dernières décennies. Selon les données de l’ISU, 15 millions de filles en âge de fréquenter le primaire n’auront jamais la possibilité d’apprendre à lire et à écrire à l’école primaire, contre environ 10 millions de garçons
  • “Cependant, pour pouvoir bénéficier des curricula du secondaire, les élèves doivent posséder les compétences nécessaires acquises aux étapes précédentes de l’enseignement. En raison de la mauvaise qualité de la scolarité précédente ou d’interruptions dans la scolarité, de nombreux élèves défavorisés arrivent dans l’enseignement secondaire avec des lacunes qui empêchent l’apprentissage, diminuent leur motivation et les poussent à abandonner. Afin d’aider ces élèves à rattraper leurs pairs plus privilégiés et à participer pleinement à l’enseignement secondaire, un soutien et des conseils plus personnalisés peuvent être utiles.
  • “Les chiffres sont alarmants : 263 millions d’enfants, d’adolescents et de jeunes sont exclus de l’éducation. Plus de la moitié des enfants et des jeunes exclus sont âgés de 15 à 17 ans.

Global rise of education

https://ourworldindata.org/global-rise-of-education
(lots of statistics, including literacy/enrolment/attainment)

  • “in 1970 there were only around 700 million people in the world with secondary or post-secondary education, by 2100 this figure is predicted to be 10 times larger

Global partnership for education: Education data

https://www.globalpartnership.org/data-and-results/education-data

  •  “An estimated 150 million children worldwide are engaged in child labor
  • “Each year of education reduces the risk of conflict by around 20%.
  • “Girls are almost two and a half more likely to be out of school if they live in conflict-affected countries, and young women are nearly 90% more likely to be out of secondary school than their counterparts in countries not affected by conflict.
  • “In low and lower-middle income countries, around 40% of children with disabilities are out of school at primary level and 55% at lower secondary level
  • “The literacy rate for adults with disabilities is 3%. For women with disabilities the literacy rate is even lower, at 1%
  • “One extra year of schooling increases an individual’s earnings by up to 10%.
  • “Each additional year of schooling raises average annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth by 0.37%.
  • “If education progress is stalled, it could lead to a 20% increase in disaster-related fatalities per decade.
  • “131 million girls worldwide are out of school (2015). This includes 32.4 million girls of primary school age, 29.8 million girls of lower secondary school age, and 68.7 million girls of upper secondary school age.
  • “Some countries lose more than US$1 billion a year by failing to educate girls to the same level as boys
  • “Each extra year of a mother’s schooling reduces the probability of infant mortality by 5% to 10%
  • “Young people from the poorest 20% of households are almost six times as likely to be unable to read as those from the richest 20% of households
  • “Half of all children in low- and middle-income countries are not taught in a language they speak.
  • “Literate people are more likely to participate in the democratic process and exercise their civil rights
  • “If adults had just 2 more years of schooling, 60 million would be lifted out of poverty.
  • “Refugees are five times less likely to attend school than other children, with only 50% of refugee children enrolled in primary school and less than 25% enrolled in secondary school (2014).
  • “85% of all refugees are hosted in developing countries.
  • “Higher education opportunities for refugees have historically been extremely limited with less than 1% of refugee youth able to access universities.
  • “There are 17 million school-age refugees and internally displaced children in countries affected by conflict.
  • “By 2030, countries must recruit 69 million teachers to provide every child with primary and secondary education: 24.4 million primary school teachers and 44.4 million secondary school teachers.
  • “In one-third of all countries, less than 75% of teachers were trained according to national standards in 2013.
  • “Less than 10 percent of schools are connected to the Internet across many developing countries.

Left behind: Refugee education in crisis

http://www.unhcr.org/59b696f44

  • “just 23 per cent of refugee adolescents are enrolled in secondary school, compared to 84 per cent globally. In low-income countries, which host 28 per cent of the world’s refugees, the number in secondary education is disturbingly low, at a mere 9 per cent.
  • “There are 6.4 million refugees of school-age amongst the 17.2 million refugees under UNHCR’s mandate. In 2016, only 2.9 million were enrolled in primary or secondary education. More than half of them – 3.5 million – did not go to school.
  • “Connected learning engages students in ways that allow them to link different dimensions of their learning environments: personal interests, peer relationships and opportunities. Connected learning has been particularly successful in remotes places where resources are low, and is invaluable where it is hard for refugees to physically attend university. Yet teachers remain central to the success of such programmes. Massive open online courses are sometimes perceived as an acceptable substitute for refugees, yet they have extremely high dropout rates. Unlike connected learning programmes, they lack personal and onsite support. Learners find the material short on relevance or are put off by the impersonal nature of sitting in front of a computer and watching a video lecture. Only 1 per cent of refugee youth are in tertiary education; this statistic will not be improved by asking refugees to learn exclusively online.

GEM Report 2016: Education for people and planet

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002457/245752e.pdf

  • “On current trends, universal primary completion will be achieved in 2042, universal lower secondary completion in 2059 and universal upper secondary completion in 2084.
  • Au rythme actuel, l’achèvement universel sera atteint en 2042 dans l’enseignement primaire, en 2059 dans le premier cycle de l’enseignement secondaire et en 2084 dans le second cycle de l’enseignement secondaire.

UNESCO: Education research and foresight working papers

The futures of learning 1: Why must learning content and methods change in the 21st century?

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002348/234807E.pdf

  • “Research by Redecker et al. (2011) identified six key challenges:
    1. multicultural integration to address immigration and demographic change;
    2. reducing early school leaving to combat unemployment and to promote a better educated workforce;
    3. fostering talent to develop a ‘smart’ economy based on knowledge and innovation;
    4. promoting a rapid and more fluent transition from school to work in order to reduce the barriers between the world of work and education;
    5. facilitating re-entrance to the labour market especially to tackle long-term unemployment; and
    6. focusing on permanent re-skilling to enable all citizens to keep their competencies updated and to quickly respond to changing work environments (p. 12, cited on p.2).
  • “The twenty-first century promises uncertainty and complexity, and little respite is expected in the scale or pace of change (Carneiro, 2007). (cited on p.3)
  • “With almost 75 million young people under 25 out of work (out of a total of 200 million unemployed) global unemployment is clearly impacting the younger generation (ILO, 2012). (p.5)
  • “The current industrial model of schooling was designed to meet the production needs of a much earlier time and has outlived its usefulness (P21, 2007). Modes of learning have shifted dramatically over the past two decades with changes in the ways people access, exchange and interact with information. Schools have changed far more slowly with the fundamental aspects of learning institutions remaining essentially familiar for 200 years or more (Davidson et al., 2009). (p.5)
  • “Some 45 per cent of the world’s households have internet access at home. (p.6)
  • “there are nearly 7 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide, equivalent to over 95 per cent of the world’s population. Developing countries are home to more than three-quarters of these subscriptions. (p.7)
  • “Learners, who might not otherwise have access to high-quality education, schools or even books, generally have access to working mobile phones. (p.7)
  • “Les recherches menées par Redecker et al. (2011) ont mis en évidence six enjeux fondamentaux :
    1. assurer l’intégration multiculturelle pour répondre à l’immigration et aux changements démographiques ;
    2. lutter contre l’abandon prématuré des études scolaires pour réduire le chômage et disposer d’une main-d’œuvre mieux instruite ;
    3. encourager les talents afin de mettre en place une économie « intelligente » fondée sur le savoir et l’innovation ;
    4. favoriser un passage rapide et plus fluide entre l’école et le monde du travail de façon à abattre les cloisons entre le monde du travail et l’enseignement ;
    5. faciliter le retour sur le marché du travail, en particulier pour réduire le chômage de longue durée ;
    6. faire porter l’effort sur le perfectionnement permanent en vue de permettre à tous les citoyens d’actualiser sans cesse leurs compétences et de répondre rapidement à l’évolution des environnements de travail
  • “Le XXIe siècle promet incertitude et complexité, et il ne faut guère attendre de répit dans l’ampleur ou le rythme du changement (Carneiro, 2007).
  • “Alors que près de 75 millions de jeunes âgés de moins de 25 ans sont sans emploi (sur un total de 200 millions de chômeurs), le chômage est un phénomène mondial qui affecte clairement la jeune génération (OIT, 2012).
  • “Le modèle actuel de l’enseignement scolaire, d’inspiration industrielle et conçu pour répondre aux besoins de production d’une époque très éloignée de la nôtre, n’est plus pertinent (P21, 2007). Les modes d’apprentissage ont connu une évolution spectaculaire au cours des deux dernières décennies, modifiant la manière dont les individus accèdent à l’information, l’échangent et l’exploitent. Les écoles se sont transformées beaucoup plus lentement, et les caractères fondamentaux de ces établissements ont pour l’essentiel conservé leur aspect traditionnel depuis 200 ans ou plus (Davidson et al., 2009).
  • “Quelque 45 % des ménages du monde ont accès à l’Internet à leur domicile.
  • “on compterait près de 7 milliards d’abonnements de téléphonie mobile dans le monde, ce qui représente plus de 95 % de la population mondiale. Plus des trois quarts de ces abonnements ont été souscrits dans des pays en développement.
  • “Des apprenants qui, sinon, ne pourraient bénéficier d’une éducation, d’écoles ou même de livres de grande qualité, ont généralement accès à des téléphones mobiles connectés.

UNESCO: Education research and foresight working papers

The futures of learning 2: What kind of learning for the 21st century?

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002429/242996E.pdf

  • “Preparing students for work, citizenship and life in the twenty- first century is daunting. Globalization, new technologies, migration, international competition, changing markets, and transnational environmental and political challenges all drive the acquisition of skills and knowledge needed by students to survive and succeed in the twenty-first century (p.2)
  • “Personalization, collaboration, communication, informal learning, productivity and content creation are central to the competencies and skills learners are expected to develop and the way in which these skills are taught. (p.2)
  • “students need seven survival skills to be prepared for twenty-first century life, work and citizenship:
    • Critical thinking and problem solving
    • Collaboration and leadership
    • Agility and adaptability
    • Initiative and entrepreneurialism
    • Effective oral and written communication
    • Accessing and analysing information
    • Curiosity and imagination (p.3)
  • “Préparer les étudiants au travail, à la citoyenneté et à la vie au XXIe siècle constitue un défi de taille. La mondialisation, les nouvelles technologies, les migrations, la concurrence internationale, l’évolution des marchés ainsi que les défis environnementaux et politiques transnationaux sont autant de facteurs qui appellent à acquérir les compétences et le savoir dont les étudiants auront besoin pour survivre et réussir au XXIe siècle.
  • “La personnalisation, la collaboration, la communication, l’apprentissage informel, la productivité et la création de contenu sont au centre des compétences et des aptitudes que les apprenants sont censés développer, de même que la manière dont ces compétences sont enseignées.
  • “les étudiants ont besoin, pour être préparés à la vie, au travail et à la citoyenneté au XXIe siècle, de sept compétences de survie :
    • Pensée critique et résolution de problèmes
    • Collaboration et leadership
    • Agilité et adaptabilité
    • Initiative et esprit d’entreprise
    • Communication orale et écrite efficace
    • Obtention et analyse de l’information
    • Curiosité et imagination

UNESCO: Education research and foresight working papers

The futures of learning 3: What kind of pedagogies for the 21st century?

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002429/242996E.pdf

World Bank: Education statistics

http://datatopics.worldbank.org/education/indicators

AI Symposium

  • “Skills provide an important safeguard against the risk of automation. Fewer than 5% of workers with a tertiary degree are at a high risk of losing their job due to automation compared to 40% of workers with a lower secondary degree. To thrive in the digital era, all workers will need to be equipped with a wide set of skills, encompassing cognitive as well as non-cognitive and social skills (notably information and communication technology [ICT] skills; science, technology, engineering and mathematics [STEM] skills; and self-organisation skills). (p.6)
  • “OECD estimates suggest that about 14% of workers are at a high risk of having most of their existing tasks automated over the next 15 years. Another 30% will face major changes in the tasks required in their job and, consequently, the skills required. About half of all workers will confront the need to significantly adapt to the new workplace environment. (p.7)
  • “Rapid technological advances can have an impact on personal, social and professional development. Implications for education include changes in the demand for knowledge and skills as well as expanding possibilities for teaching and learning. (p.1)
  • “The increasing sophistication of robots, artificial intelligence, big data and the Internet of things (OECD, 2016a) generate anxieties about the automation of existing jobs. (p.1)
  • “In 2015, 50% of new entrants in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics tertiary- education programmes were women on average, but only 19% were in the fields of information and communication technologies, and 24% in engineering, manufacturing and construction fields (OECD, 2017c). (p.4)

The Real Payoff From Artificial Intelligence Is Still a Decade Off

https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/08/09/the-solution-to-the-productivity-puzzle-is-simple-robots-ai/

  • “The number of active, venture-backed private companies in the United States that are developing artificial-intelligence systems is 14 times larger now than in 2000. Similarly, industrial robots—many of them programmed with new artificial intelligence—are more pervasive than ever. Between 2003 and 2010, the number of industrial robots worldwide remained roughly stagnant. The figure nearly doubled between 2010 and 2014. By 2020, the stock of robots is expected to be almost three times larger than it was in 2014.

Will you be employed? Skills demanded by the changing nature of work

http://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/will-you-be-employed-skills-demanded-changing-nature-work

Exploring the impact of artificial intelligence on teaching and learning in higher education

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s41039-017-0062-8

How artificial intelligence is disrupting education

https://e27.co/artificial-intelligence-disrupting-education-20180302/

Learning to Work With Robots: AI will change everything. Workers must adapt — or else.

https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/07/11/learning-to-work-with-robots-automation-ai-labor/

Artificial intelligence and jobs: What’s left for humanity will require uniquely human skills

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/commentary/article-artificial-intelligence-and-jobs-whats-left-for-humanity-will/

How AI could transform the way we measure kids’ intelligence

https://qz.com/1329111/the-case-for-how-ai-could-kill-high-stakes-testing/

Education and employment and the response to automation

http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20180718063505798

Intelligence artificielle : comment l’enseigner pour modifier la représentation qu’en ont les jeunes

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01753142/file/Brieuc.pdf

Le courrier de l’UNESCO : Intelligence artificielle – Promesses et menaces

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002652/265211f.pdf

L’intelligence artificielle au Canada où en sommes-nous?

https://www.ictc-ctic.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/AI-White-paper-final-French.pdf

L’intelligence artificielle (IA) pour favoriser l’entraide à l’école

https://ecolebranchee.com/intelligence-artificielle-ia-favoriser-entraide/

L’intelligence artificielle sonne-t-elle le glas de l’école traditionnelle?

http://plus.lapresse.ca/screens/4b4edd84-25e7-4fd1-90a6-9edf399165c7__7C___0.html</em

5 rôles possibles de l’intelligence artificielle en éducation

https://ecolebranchee.com/5-roles-possibles-de-lintelligence-artificielle-en-education/